Diabetes mellitus is a severe chronic disease that occurs as a result of an increase in blood sugar levels. Many people have lived with diabetes for many years and pay no attention to the obvious signs of the disease. Insulin deficiency in the body or its ineffective effect can affect the sugar rise level. It is important to note that diabetes is a disease that has its own varieties. Basically, people with diabetes are divided into 2 types: insulin-dependent (first type of diabetes) and insulin-independent (second type). This disease is incurable and if a patient is diagnosed with this disease, she will accompany him throughout his life.
Often people suffering from this disease are interested in the topic of nutrition and food products that can be used in food to normalize and balance the metabolism of the body. The preference for products should be attributed to vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. Doctors nowadays believe that proper nutrition is the best prevention for diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, you need to find the right treatment (limit the intake of additional medications) and stick to the correct diet. The most important thing is not to self-medicate when diagnosing such a disease, but to go to a consultation with an endocrinologist who can tell you everything about diabetes, prescribe the necessary treatment, and also tell you how to behave correctly, and indeed live with diabetes. Many do not even think about how dangerous this disease is and how many people in the world die from a late diagnosis or from complications caused by diabetes. In this article, we will look at the basic dietary rules for each type of diabetes, and also consider a list of foods that are best to refuse and which, on the contrary, give preference.
Diet for type 1 diabetes mellitus
The first type of diabetes is more dangerous and severe. When diagnosing this type, a person is assigned insulin injections, which will have to be done throughout his life. Many do not adhere to a diabetes diet, and due to this, the disease can progress rapidly, give complications and lead to various diseases.
The main treatment for patients with the first type of diabetes is to choose the right insulin and in the necessary doses. It is very important that the doctor correctly selects the pharmaceutical preparation, its dosage and also helps to formulate the necessary diet, as it can also be customized. Proper treatment is essential for a diabetic patient. Because if the treatment is not started in time, the consequences can be dire. Of course, insulin itself will normalize blood sugar levels, but with the right diet, the number of injections per day can decrease. And do not forget that only your doctor should prescribe treatment and diet, as the first type of diabetes is quite dangerous and it is better not to "play" with it.
There is a special system for calculating the required insulin dose and calculating the food consumed, this system is called the "Bread Unit". According to this system, one unit of bread is equivalent to 10-15 grams of carbohydrates. In simple terms, a unit of bread is, for example, an orange or a slice of bread. As a rule, doctors publish a table in which the patient can mark and monitor the level of bread units.
By the way, it is worth noting that all doctors recommend keeping a diabetic diary, in which it will be necessary to indicate all the food consumed per day, as well as its quantity. This will help the doctor control your disease and identify some nuances. With the first type of diabetes, the main thing is to adhere to certain rules that will in no way distinguish you from a healthy person. The main thing is that one prem of food does not exceed 7 units of bread. It is very important to calculate the insulin dose and bread units before each meal. And the main thing you should give up is sweet drinks (lemonade, energy drinks, sweet tea, carbonated juices and just sweets), as they have an excessively large amount of sugar and this can significantly harm the patient's well-being and dramatically increase the levelof sugar.
Diet for type 2 diabetes
Most often, it is due to obesity or banal overeating that a person can develop type 2 diabetes. With this disease, the main task is to normalize metabolism and carbohydrates. Do not forget that diabetes mellitus appears not only due to the use of large amounts of sugar, but also banal overeating can provoke the development of the disease. The body does not produce enough insulin or the cells simply lose their sensitivity to it. As a rule, doctors recommend proper treatment (with pills), diet and an active lifestyle (daily physical activity is what you need).
The diet necessary for patients with the second type of diabetes, and such patients are usually overweight and overweight, can be properly selected and prescribed by an endocrinologist, since this disease is endocrine in nature. When prescribing a diet, the doctor should interview the patient and clarify his gender, body weight, age category, as well as the presence of physical activity.
The second type of diet is based on weight loss and normalization of metabolism. Often the doctor can calculate the right amount of calories per day. As a rule, the number of calories is calculated from the proportions per 1 kilogram of body - 20 calories for women, and for men - 25. So, if you wish, you can independently calculate the number of calories required during the day. If a person has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it is very important to remember that the diet must be followed on an ongoing basis. This is why it is very important to compose a diet that is tasty, healthy and varied. But don't forget that high calorie meals and foods that raise blood sugar levels should be eliminated altogether.
When planning a diabetes diet, it is very important to remember that you need to use more foods that contain plant fiber and water. Such products will help to satisfy the appetite and at the same time will not be deposited by extra pounds on the body. The main thing is to lose weight, but this must be done carefully enough so as not to gain even more kilograms later.
Calories and quantities allowed during the day
People with diabetes can often lose their diet due to acute and severe hunger and food restriction. It is important to remember that the main thing in the diet is not to count the number of calories, but simply to eat the right foods. In no case should you count calories and try to limit them, as this, on the contrary, can only exacerbate the disease and worsen the patient's well-being. Scientists argue that it is nutrition that primarily affects the development of diabetes mellitus and the occurrence of concomitant diseases.
There is a so-called low-carbohydrate diet, which, of course, will force you to give up certain foods, even those you loved and ate constantly. At the same time, you can choose the right foods, and the diet will be quite tasty and satisfying. By simply eating the right diet, you can control your blood sugar levels, and the food can be just as tasty, but also healthy. By the way, in 2012, Dubai scientists conducted a study on the effect of a low-carb diet on the condition and well-being of patients, as it was found that patients who adhered to this diet were less likely to break downand they perfectly controlled their blood sugar levels, the treatment was less painful and practically no special restrictions in the amount of food.
Fruit that can be eaten with diabetes
In diabetes mellitus, special attention is paid to fruits, as they are fruits that contain a lot of fiber and also concentrate many useful vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Compared to other products, their concentration is several times higher. It should be noted that they mainly contain fructose and sucrose, but glucose is practically absent.
If we fully compare all possible fruits, then only some of them can be distinguished, as only some fruits provide value to the body. In addition, it is worth noting that it is not recommended to consume all fruits, some fruits, on the contrary, are contraindicated for diabetics.
Among the fruits recommended for diabetics are: grapefruits, lemons, oranges, apples, apricots, peaches, pears, pomegranates, a variety of dried fruit (it is recommended to use dried apricots, prunes, dried apples), amongberries can be noted - cherries, blueberries, gooseberries, currants, blackberries. But for example, watermelons and melons should be consumed in moderation, as they contain more carbohydrate components. As you already understood, it is necessary to consume sour varieties of fruits and berries, they will be more useful and will not sharply and sharply increase blood sugar levels.
Many diabetics ask exactly the question of allowed food, since nutrition is one of the most important factors for them. We will provide you with a list of foods that we recommend using, but I would like to point out that this is only a rough list. A more precise diet for diabetes mellitus should only be determined by the attending physician, as he knows all your medical conditions and the history of the disease. So, what foods can you eat:
- vegetable or mushroom soup, okroshka, lean fish broths;
- lean meats: chicken, rabbit, veal, beef;
- it is better to take bread from second grade flour, rye or wheat, bread with bran;
- lean fish, but you can only use it boiled or baked, fried fish should be removed from the diet. Canned food can be eaten, but it is important to pay attention that it must be in their own juice, other types of canned food are prohibited;
- of cereals, porridge made from wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats and pearl barley should be preferred;
- you can also consume eggs, but no more than 2 eggs per week, and only proteins are better, but it is better to limit the amount of yolk;
- low-fat dairy products: cottage cheese, milk, yogurt, as well as low-fat types of hard cheese;
- from fruits and berries, preference should be given to non-sweet varieties (apples, kiwis, grapefruits);
- you can consume compote, jelly and even sweets, but it is very important that they are based on sorbitol or saccharin;
- cucumber, squash, tomato, squash, lettuce, cabbage and eggplant are the vegetables of choice. It is very good to use these raw vegetables (for example in a salad);
- potatoes can be eaten in moderation and it is very important to soak them in water before cooking, as they leave starch during soaking, which is harmful to diabetes and can increase sugar;
- herbal teas, sour berry juice, uzvar.
As you can see, the list of allowed foods is quite large and the important thing is to simply adapt to a correct diet and consume more fruits and vegetables. A diabetes diet can be quite tasty, as long as you understand that your health and well-being depend on it.
There are some foods that are contraindicated and prohibited for diabetics, as they can significantly increase blood sugar. After all, it is nutrition that affects sugar levels. What kind of food is contraindicated and which products are better to refuse:
- fatty meat broth;
- wholemeal bread;
- fatty meat, it is better to give up pork, lamb, duck and goose. It is also necessary to exclude from the diet types of smoked meat, sausage and lard;
- flour products: cake, sandwich and various types of biscuits. Butter and puff pastry, as well as products based on them, are strictly prohibited;
- coffee and any coffee drink are worth giving up;
- fatty fish, salted or smoked fish, canned food (if cooked in oil or tomato);
- fried, spicy and fatty foods are completely contraindicated, as they only increase sugar and can provoke the development of any other disease;
- salty cheeses, curd masses and only sweet and fat ricotta, butter and cream;
- dairy products with a high percentage of fat content;
- legumes (peas, beans), varieties of salted and pickled vegetables;
- from fruit are prohibited: all types of grapes, bananas, dates, strawberries, figs;
- jam, sugar, chocolate and various candy products;
- energy and carbonated drinks;
- juices that contain high amounts of glucose (grape, multifruit) and sugar-based lemonade;
- from cereals, you should forget about white rice, semolina and all kinds of pasta.
Proper dietary nutrition is very important for people with diabetes. A diet during diabetes is simply necessary, and limiting certain foods can greatly facilitate the patient's life. So everything is in your hands, remember that by adhering to a certain diet, the treatment will be much easier.
It is very important to remember that when diagnosing diabetes, the main thing is the right treatment and the right diet. For some reason, many forget the diet and assume that doctor-prescribed pills or insulin normalize sugar, and this is not entirely wrong, as frequent sugar drops can provoke the development of other more serious ailments. Often this disease negatively affects vision, heart and joints. With diabetes, many live happily ever after, but somehow you have to limit yourself.
Proper treatment, nutrition, a physically active lifestyle are the key to a long and happy life for a diabetic. Whatever type of diabetes is diagnosed, treatment is still necessary and therefore nutrition must be corrected immediately. Yes, diabetes mellitus is one of the incurable diseases (although scientists have been trying for many years to find a cure for a complete cure), which can cause other diseases, but if you learn to live with it correctly, you will live a long and happy life. Remember, quality treatment and a diabetes diet are the most important thing.